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Any grain can be malted, but the term ‘malting’ usually applies to barley. The grain is encouraged to sprout, this converts its starch to maltose and dextrins, then the grains are dried and the sprout is rubbed off, leaving behind sweet–tasting grains. The colour and flavour of the malt is determined by the amount of heat the grains are given and ranges from pale malt to black malts, which have a burnt taste and are used for making stout. Malt is mainly used in the brewing and whisky–making industry, in baking or as a flavouring for cereals. When used for making bread, the malt helps give the bread a good flavour and texture (a large quantity of malt produces a sweet, brown sticky loaf). Malt is also available as malt extract, a thick, brown liquid, and dried ground malt powder, which can be added to milk to make malted drinks like Horlicks. Malt vinegar is a dark–brown vinegar generally used for pickling or on fish and chips.