To make the frangipane, mix the butter, sugar, ground almonds, egg yolks and vanilla extract in a mixing bowl and mix until combined (alternatively you can place the ingredients in a food processor and mix until combined).
Refrigerate until chilled.
Preheat the oven to 220°C (400°F/Gas 6).
Lay the puff pastry on a baking tray and trim off the edges of pastry (this makes the edges rise evenly).
Using the point of a sharp knife, and being careful not to cut right through, score a 1 cm (1/2 inch) border around the edge of the sheet of puff pastry.
Prick the entire surface with a fork and brush with egg yolk.
Spread the frangipane evenly over the pastry within the scored area.
Place the cherries, with the cut side up, in a single layer on top of the frangipane.
Place the tart in the oven and bake for 25 minutes until the sides are golden and puffed.